each and every

Both a cliche and a redundant phrase; avoid.

e.g., i.e.,

These abbreviations take periods and are always followed by a comma.

The former stands for the Latin exempli gratia, meaning "for example."

Emory students can choose from a wide variety of Atlanta entertainment options (e.g., museums, concerts, shopping).

Don't confuse e.g., with i.e., which stands for id est, or "that is." Whereas e.g., refers the reader to several possible examples of a given case, i.e., refers him or her to all examples of a case.

The rapper Jay-Z, i.e., Shawn Carter, was born in Brooklyn, NY, in 1969.

either/or, neither/nor

These can be used only when two items are being discussed. If more than two items are in question, these constructions shouldn't be used. Pair them properly, and do not mix them.

I read neither Hemingway's Old Man and the Sea nor For Whom the Bell Tolls.
NOT I saw neither the Empire State Building or One World Trade Center.

She will choose either the red or the blue.
NOT She will choose neither the red, the green, nor the blue.

ellipsis ( . . . )

This series of three dots indicates the absence of quoted words. It also can be used to indicate a pause in or incompleteness of thought. Note the spaces between the three dots.

A four-dot ellipsis indicates quoted material left out after the end of a complete sentence.

“I fell in love with Emma Eckstein the moment I saw her from the fourth gallery of the Carl Theater, and this was also the night I met Sigmund Freud. . . . What drew my attention so irresistibly to her?” (Joseph Skibell, A Curable Romantic)

> See also: Punctuation Particulars


Lowercase the e (except when the word appears in a headline or at the beginning of a line or sentence). Do not use a hyphen.

> See also: computer terms

email addresses

If an email address falls at the end of a sentence, include the terminal period:

Contact the head of Creative Services at dave.holston@emory.edu.

emeritus (m., sing.), emerita (f., sing.), emeriti (plural)

Arthur M. Blank is a trustee emeritus of the Emory University Board of Trustees.
Professor Emerita Gretchen Schulz
The president addressed the professors emeriti.

See also: alumni, alumna


Resist the urge to emphasize words, since bold, italic, underlined, and uppercase type can be jarring to readers. Do not use multiple type styles for emphasis.


> See assure.

et al.

An abbreviation for the Latin et alia, meaning "and others"; used only in note citations and bibliographies, not in regular text.
NOT et. al.


An abbreviation for the Latin et cetera, meaning "and so forth." Avoid using this abbreviation since its vagueness tends to weaken writing. Instead of tacking etc. on the end of a sentence, indicate up front that the list of examples will not be exhaustive.

NOT We will engage in activities such as hiking, fishing, swimming, etc.
BUT Our activities will include hiking, fishing, and swimming.

every day, everyday

She goes to work every day.
He is wearing everyday shoes.

every one, everyone

See any one, anyone.